Three articles from War2War
Here are three articles from the blog War2war. We say thanks to War2War and hope you visit them. www.war2war.wordpress.com
Trying to damage enemy morale by various means is probably as old as war itself. During World War II the Germans tried to get the soldiers, mainly the Western allies to feel discouragement through radio broadcasts directed westward. One of those who took care of this psychological warfare was Mildred Gillars, of Uncle Sam’s soldiers known as ”Axis Sally”.
Mildred Gillars was born in the US but came and fell in love with a German gentleman with a very Swedish name rang, Paul Karlson. Gillars probably had plans to return home to the United States when the war began, but her fiancé was received. She promised to stay. Paul Karlson summoned but fell almost immediately on the Eastern Front. Already in 1940, Gillars begun working in Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft, the German radio was called. Starting out have made the most apolitical broadcasting began to Mildred Gillars with more political activity. From late 1942 until May 1945 Gillars voice on the air in the program ”Home Sweet Home” which tried to get the soldiers in the US army to get homesick and give up hope that they could win the war. While other programs were Gillars with. Some of the texts she read up more or less anti-Semitic. With another woman of American origin Rita Zucca she collaborated and there were those who believed that it was the same person.
The Sixth Axis Sally May made his last broadcast. She was detained for a time and was sentenced to prison, but was released in 1961. Mildred Gillars was born in 1900 and died in 1988, 87 year old.
Mościcki studied chemistry at Polyteknikum in Riga and after participating in a socialist revolutionary movement together with Józef Pilsudski and risked imprisonment, Mościcki fled in 1892 to London, where he studied further. In 1897 he became assistant in 1911 and head of the physical institute laboratory in Fribourg in Switzerland. He also founded a nitrogen factory there, who worked for one of Mościcki invented method. In 1913 he became professor of electrochemistry at the Technical University in Lwów. Mościcki 1921 took over the leadership of the former German nitrogen plants in Chorzów. After the coup May 12, 1926 sounded Pilsudski condition Mościcki to the Polish President of the Republic; he elected 1933 a new 7-year period.
Ignacy Mościcki was married two times and had four children. Mościcki was president, but the strong man of polish politics was General Edward Rydz-Śmigły.
After the Polish defeat against Germany in the West and after the Soviet invasion of eastern Poland, fled on the night of September 18, 1939 together with the Polish government to Romania, where he was interned. In December 1939, Mościcki moved with his family to Switzerland. The former president of Poland dies in exile 1946.
New Zealand Home Guard
New Zealand was part of the British Empire when World War II broke out. New Zealand came into the war while the rest of the British Empire in August 1939. In August 1940 authorities decided that the militia would be formed. The prototype for the Home Guard came from Britain. The Home Guards primary objective was defending New Zealand from the threat posed by the Empire of Japan.
Membership was initially voluntary, with a minimum age of 15 but no upper limit. From 1942, membership was compulsory for those in the 35 to 50 age bracket. Members of the Home Guard who served for 28 days full-time or 6 months part-time were eligible for the New Zealand War Service Medal. At the peak of its membership, the Home Guard had approximately 119,000-123,000.
Initially the guard were not supplied with uniforms and had to make do with an armband. For a long time there was a shortage of weapons and they depended on rifles provided by civilians. However, by 1943 training and resources had improved so that almost 100,000 guardsmen had uniforms.
One of the key responsibilities of the Home Guard was the mission of destroying any infrastructure, particularly bridges that could be used by invading Japanese forces. In East Auckland, the Home Guard was predominantly made up of horse-mounted farmers who had been were excused from war service. They carried out exercises in 1942 including one in which they tested the time taken to travel from Manukau Harbour to the Waitemata Harbour at Eastern Beach. Farmers with experience from World War I were used to construct beach obstacles such as barbed wire entanglements and to build concrete pillboxes. Eastern Beach had such pillboxes at each end. The long wave radio station at Musick Point was provided with bomb shelters from which emergency radios could be operated. A blackout was imposed and enforced by the Home Guard. The wooden wharf at Bucklands Beach, which was believed capable of aiding a Japanese landing, was demolished in 1942.
Initially the guard were not supplied with uniforms and had to make do with an armband. For a long time there was a shortage of weapons and they depended on rifles provided by civilians. However, by 1943 training and resources had improved so that almost 100,000 guardsmen had uniforms. The basic unit of the guard was the platoon. Platoons were intended primarily to provide defense of their own localities, although some also patrolled on deserted beaches. At their greatest strength they included 119,000 guardsmen – 7.5% of the population, more than double the proportion of the Home Guard in Great Britain.
When the threat against New Zealand declined the authorities gave the order to the Home Guard would be dismantled.