Articles from WAR2WAR: Three Axis leaders

Articles from WAR2WAR: Three Axis leaders

Anton Mussert

Anton Adriaan Mussert was born 11 of May 1894 Werkendam, a city in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Mussert study at the Delft University of Technology and became civil engineer. Together with Cornelis van Geelkerken Mussert start a new party 1931. The party was the Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland, NSB, in English National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands. Mussert became the leader of the party.

In the provincial elections of 1935 the party gained 8 percent of the votes and two seats in the Senate. Mussert and his party members in NSB sympathized with the national socialists in Germany. Members and sympathizers were put in custody by the Dutch government in May 1940; they were set free by German troops after the invasion. NSB start to collaborate with the Germans. The Germans forbade all parties, except for the NSB.

Mussert had a hope to become prime minister but Artur Seyss-Inquart was appointed as the Reichskommissar of the Nederland bye Hitler. Mussert agreed and oversaw the formation of the 23. SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Division Nederland (niederlandische Nr. 1)

In 1942 Mussert was recognized by the Germans as leader of the Dutch people, Leider van het Nederlandse Volk, he also visits Hitler a few times during the war. Mussert remained to the end faithful to Hitler. When the news came on May 1, 1945 that Hitler died on April 30, 1945, Mussert praised even in a proclamation Hitler.

Anton Mussert was arrested 7 May 1945. He was executed same day 1946 by a firing squad.


Chen Gongbo

Chen Gongbo was born in Nanhai, Guandong Province, China 1892. His father was an official in the Qing Dynasty administration. Chen Gongbo was originally a member of the Nationalist Party; he became a founding member of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921, but left the communists in the following year. Gongbo lived in the United States for several years where he obtained a master’s degree in Economics at Columbia University in 1925. Same year Gongbo returning home to China and the Nationalist Party. He was named the head of the Nationalist government’s Department of Peasants. In 1932, he was named Minister of Enterprises while holding party leadership positions in the Sichuan Province. In 1938, Gongbo joined his friend and political ally Wang Jingwei’s Japanese-sponsored puppet government based in Nanjing, China as its speaker of the Legislative Yuan and mayor of Shanghai. When Wang was abroad in Japan, Gongbo was the acting president and premier (head of the Executive Yuan). Chen Gongbo became president of the Nanjing Nationalist government on Wang’s death in November 1944.

Near the end of the war, Gongbo fled to Japan, but was extradited to China on 3 October 1945. He was placed on trial for treason. Chen defended himself by presenting his disagreements with the Japanese on several significant matters while serving as acting president of the puppet government, but ultimately he was found guilty. “Soon, I will be reunited with Wang Jingwei in the next world”, he said when his death sentence was announced. He was executed by a firing squad at Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China in 1946.


Ioannis Rallis

Ioannis Rallis was prime minister for the Hellenic state, an axis puppet state during world war two. Rallis became prime minister April 1943. Before the war Rallis was member of the anti-communist and royalist’s party, Peoples Party. Ioannis Rallis was anti-communits and believed the axis was a better choice for the Greeks. Rallis was founder of the so called Security Battalions who start to fight against the guerilla 1943, over 20 000 man from Greece fight in this collaboration army. The Germans left Greek in the end of 1944. Rallis moved to Germany. After the war the allies send Rallis back and he was sentenced to life imprisonment. Ioannis Rallis die in jail 1946 in cancer.


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